A Guide To The Hairspring, A Crucial Part Of The Movement (Technology, Manufacturing Process, Future Developments)

A Guide To The Hairspring, A Crucial Part Of The Movement (Technology, Manufacturing Process, Future Developments)

Sprung to life: who makes Hairsprings? An industry point of view on this key component whose creation is as yet covered in mystery – Barely one centimeter in width, the hairspring is the pulsating heart of a watch development. It is an essential component in a few regards. Manufacturing hairsprings is a complex interaction and the entire Swiss watch industry has been depending on one provider, Swatch Group’s Nivarox… in any event, until very recently!

Christian Huygens is credited (by common agreement) with the innovation of the primary development with an equilibrium haggle in 1675. From that point forward, the standards of the directing organ of the watch have changed practically nothing. The escapement offers motivations to the equilibrium wheel. Consequently, it is controlled by the equilibrium. The motions of the equilibrium wheel direct the progression of time: each swing of the equilibrium permits the gear train to propel a set sum. Its job is like that of a pendulum in a clock. The very slender wound hairspring guarantees that the equilibrium swings to and fro at a steady frequency.

The condition of the industry

Nivarox (a company of the Swatch Group) has for quite some time been the inevitable provider of hairsprings and combinations (escapement/controller) for the Swiss watch industry. It stayed the primary provider to a great extent on the grounds that no other firm arose that could offer comparable quality at a competitive cost and with a similar creation limit. This prevailing position be that as it may, and the grouping sourcing challenges which emerged during the blast of the business in the mid 2000s, prompted the formation of option sources.

To be free from Swatch Group, Rolex was one of the main players to build up a full in-house creation capacity for hairsprings. Following over five years of innovative work, the main Parachrom hairsprings went into creation in the mid 2000s. Parachrom is a composite of niobium and zirconium, with an oxide covering. The name combines “paramagnetic” along with “chrome” (Greek for shading). One of the principle focal points of the Parachrom hairspring are its non-attractive properties, in addition to it is more exact when exposed to stuns in comparison to ferromagnetic alloys.

Although completely operational much later, Richemont has additionally fabricated creation capacity for hairsprings. Like Rolex, it involved acquiring freedom for the watchmaking force to be reckoned with. The creation was started in Germany with A. Lange & Söhne and Switzerland with Jaeger-LeCoultre. The combination of Roger Dubuis gave another source. Montblanc-Minerva additionally produces hairsprings albeit not at mechanical scale (principally for tourbillons and round and hollow hairsprings). Today, Valfleurier (Richemont’s common modern place) is the principle maker for the gathering. Not all Richemont developments are fitted with exclusive hairsprings however the ability and limit appear to be adequate to guarantee autonomy.

Atokalpa, some portion of the watchmaking bunch possessed by the Sandoz Family establishment (along with Parmigiani Fleurier and Vaucher specifically), was among the first to start an arrangement to fabricate hairsprings in the mid 2000s. Today, Atokalpa produces more than 200,000 combinations each year for Vaucher and outsiders, free watchmakers yet additionally huge players like Tag Heuer. It is today quite possibly the main options in contrast to Nivarox, having both the mechanical limit and the aptitude/adaptability to create and make complex items in short arrangement (Rolex or Richemont don’t offer to third parties).

Concepto, a development provider situated in La Chaux-de-Fonds, likewise makes hairspring. These are fitted in their own developments in spite of the fact that they still likewise use Nivarox. They additionally supply to outsider brands. As indicated by CEO Valérien Jaquet, its creation would be some place in the scope of 100,000 units for each year.

Precision Engineering AG, an autonomous auxiliary of H. Moser & Cie. (a piece of the Meylan Group), is the third huge creator of hairsprings for outsiders. Its creation is of 55,000 collections each year. Precision Engineering AG was established in 2001 as a side project of Straumann SA (the company aptitude goes as far back as 1930 with the innovation at that point licensed by Reinhard Straumann). In 2016, Precision Engineering AG introduced another amalgam; PE500. This compound, comprised of niobium and titanium has an extraordinary fondness for oxygen. It is introduced as paramagnetic and stun safe with the upside of permitting adjustments.

The little circle of companies manufacturing (customary) hairspring additionally includes:

  • The Festina Group that comprises a few watch and gems marks yet in addition modern exercises, specifically development producer Soprod. Moreover, the Miguel Rodriguez-drove bunch as of late took over Technotime that likewise produces hairsprings, before the company went bankrupt.
  • Bovet produces combinations despite the fact that as far as anyone is concerned uniquely for its own needs.
  • E2O advancement, the sister company of Schwarz Etienne fits the brand’s developments with restrictive hairsprings and is presently working for third parties.

For more insights regarding the entire directing organ of the watch (balance, materials, tourbillon, change) and furthermore the overcoil of the hairspring – including the popular Breguet type – you can check our specialized article about controlling organs here .


For quite a while now, silicon has been really altering customary watchmaking. Hard-wearing, light, strong, hostile to attractive, thermally steady and with fantastic versatile properties, silicon presents excellent properties to make hairsprings. Nonetheless, this innovation is accessible to a predetermined number of companies just, which isn’t the situation for other silicon components.

The first silicon hairspring was introduced by Ulysse Nardin on account of Sigatec, a joint endeavor with Mimotec, which represents considerable authority in silicon miniature components. The brand has built up an exceptional skill in the field. Then again, Rolex, Patek Philippe and the Swatch Group teamed up in a joint advancement with CSEM. They protected the innovation which was the explanation of a question with Sigatec. An arrangement between all gatherings was found (in spite of the fact that its terms were not revealed in 2013).

However, the CSEM patent will lapse in 2021 and the innovation will become accessible. Normally, a few companies (for example Atokalpa) are along these lines examining and assembling ability in the field of silicon hairspring manufacturing. Other high-tech materials have been utilized to make hairsprings, albeit the creation stays restricted starting today. For instance, the Cartier idea watches ID-One and ID-Two are fitted with hairsprings produced using Zerodur©, a cutting edge glass-artistic composite.

At Baselworld 2017, Zenith disclosed its Defy 21, with hairsprings made of a carbon-based composite fortified with carbon nanotubes that has been protected by LVMH, Zenith’s parent company. At LVMH, under the aegis of Jean-Claude Biver, the road to dominate this watch component is that of advancement. The gathering states that it is contributing extensively to build up their creation and that the manufacturing offices are being set up under LVMH Suisse Manufacture.

Unconventional oscillators

Beyond the customary equilibrium haggle, “whimsical” oscillators have been introduced by watchmakers. As of late, along with the advancement of new escapements and the possibilities offered by silicon, these oscillators have had the option to arrive at higher frequencies to improve precision or to decrease the energy utilization of the development. Among these, the furthest down the line developments to supplant the conventional twisting spring incorporate the TAG Heuer excitatory edge framework with direct oscillator fit in the Mikrogirder, acoustic resonators for De Bethune and the imaginative offset with adaptable cutting edges of the Parmigiani-Genequand escapement… and we expect news from Zenith in this regard very soon so stay tuned!